Who has the authority to grant permission? That depends on your culture and your perception of who’s in charge. Mostly in the West, when it comes to kids, parent(s) or the legal guardian has that power and right to justly care, manage and supervise another person in a fair and humane way, where rights are pretty much protected.
Women’s empowerment is advocated in America, but why is it so hard to achieve? American women are publicly encouraged to succeed from both government institutions and private enterprise.